Application: ELISA, IHC
8-Nitroguanosine is a nitrated nucleic acid which is formed by peroxynitrite, myeloperoxidase, nitrite, and peroxide. It is known that nitration of guanine is enhanced in virus infection (1, 2), bacterial infection (3, 4), inflammatory disease (5), cancer (5), and diseases associated with smoking (6). 8-nitroguanosine is thought to be a DNA damage marker created by oxidative stress. Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is an important signaling molecule. Interestingly, 8-Nitro-cGMP (nitrated cGMP) has been identified in vivo (3). Therefore, 8-Nitro-cGMP could potentially act as a mediator for reactive oxygen signaling (3, 7-9).
Anti-Nitroguanosine polyclonal antibody does not cross-react with normal nucleobases but selectively reacts with nitrated nucleic acids such as nitroguanosine, nitroguanine, and nitroxanthine. Therefore, Anti-Nitroguanosine polyclonal antibody is a universal antibody against guanine modified 8th position with a nitro group. Anti-Nitroguanosine polyclonal antibody has very high affinity for 8-nitroguanine and 8-nitroguanosine, but it does not cross-react with normal guanosine, guanine, 8-hydroxyguanine or 3-nitrotyrosine. Since this antibody was prepared using rabbits, it can be used for immuno-histostaining of rodent tissues.
1) T. Akaike, S. Okamoto, T. Sawa, J. Yoshitake, F. Tamura, K. Ichimori, K. Miyazaki, K. Sasamoto and H. Maeda, 8-nitroguanosine formation in viral pneumonia and its implication for pathogenesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 685-690 (2003).
2) J. Yoshitake, T. Akaike, T. Akuta, F. Tamura, T. Ogura, H. Esumi, and H. Maeda, Nitric oxide as an endogenous mutagen for Sendai virus without antiviral activity, J. Virol., 78, 8709-8719 (2004).
3) T. Sawa, M. H. Zaki, T. Okamoto, T. Akuta, Y. Tokutomi, S. Kim-Mitsuyama, H. Ihara, A. Kobayashi, M. Yamamoto, S. Fujii, H. Arimoto, and T. Akaike, Protein S-guanylation by the biological signal 8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, Nat. Chem. Biol., 3, 727-735 (2007).
4) M. H.Zaki, S. Fujii, T. Okamoto, S. Islam, S. Khan, K. A. Ahmed, T. Sawa, and T. Akaike, Cytoprotective function of heme oxygenase 1 induced by a nitrated cyclic nucleotide formed during murine salmonellosis, J. Immunol., 182, 3746-3756 (2009).
5) Y. Terasaki, T. Akuta, M. Terasaki, T. Sawa, T. Mori, T. Okamoto, M. Ozaki, M. Takeya and T. Akaike, Guanine nitration in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and its implication for carcinogenesis, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med., 174, 665-673 (2006).
6) T. Sawa, M. Tatemichi, T. Akaike, A. Barbin and H. Ohshima, Analysis of urinary 8-nitroguanine, a marker of nitrative nucleic acid damage, by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection coupled with immunoaffinity purification: association with cigarette smoking, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 40, 711-720 (2006).
7) M. Feelisch, Nitrated cyclic GMP as a new cellular signal, Nat. Chem. Biol., 3, 687-688 (2007).
8) K. A. Ahmed, T. Sawa, T. Akaike, Protein cysteine S-guanylation and electrophilic signal transduction by endogeneous nitro-nucleotides, Amino Acids (2010).
9) T. Sawa, H. Arimoto and T. Akaike, Regulation of redox signaling involving chemical conjugation of protein thiols by nitric oxide and electrophiles, Bioconjugate Chem (2010).