Cosmo Bio抗体,Anti Drosophila Forkhead Box Protein O (dFOXO) pAb,CAC-THU-A-DFOXO

转录因子(tf)直接解释基因组,执行解码DNA序列的第一步。许多基因发挥着“主调节因子”和“选择基因”的作用,控制着指定细胞类型和发育模式的过程(Lee和Young, 2013),并控制着免疫反应等特定途径(Singh等,2014)。在实验室中,tf可以驱动细胞分化(Fong和Tapscott, 2013),甚至去分化和反分化(Takahashi和Yamanaka, 2016)。tf和tf结合位点的突变是许多人类疾病的基础。它们的蛋白质序列、调控区域和生理作用在后生动物中往往是高度保守的(Bejerano et al., 2004;Carroll, 2008),表明全球基因调控“网络”可能同样保守。然而,在个体调控序列中存在较高的周转率(Weirauch和Hughes, 2010),并且在较长的时间尺度上,tf重复和发散。同一TF可以调节不同细胞类型中的不同基因(例如,乳腺和子宫内膜细胞系中的ESR1 [Gertz et al., 2012]),这表明即使在同一生物体内,调节网络也是动态的。确定tf如何以不同的方式组装以识别结合位点和控制转录是令人生畏的,但对于理解它们的生理作用、解码基因组的特定功能特性以及绘制复杂生物中高度特异性的表达程序是如何编排的至关重要。

Forkhead转录因子FoxO控制多种细胞过程,参与细胞周期、细胞死亡、代谢和氧化应激。最近的研究还表明,FoxO是调节各种生物寿命的关键分子。果蝇只有一个FoxO基因(dFoxO),其失活对于生存是必不可少的。然而,dFoxO似乎可以调节果蝇对氧化应激和衰老的抵抗力。dFoxO的活性受磷酸化、泛素化和乙酰化的调控,这可能导致该抗体在western blotting中出现多条dFoxO条带。该抗体检测内源性总dFoxO蛋白水平。

Application: IP, WB

Clonality: Polyclonal

Host: Rabbit

Purification: Serum

Reactivity: Drosophila

Transcription factors (TFs) directly interpret the genome, performing the first step in decoding the DNA sequence. Many function as ‘‘master regulators’’ and ‘‘selector genes’’, exerting control over processes that specify cell types and developmental patterning (Lee and Young, 2013) and controlling specific pathways such as immune responses (Singh et al., 2014). In the laboratory, TFs can drive cell differentiation (Fong and Tapscott, 2013) and even de-differentiation and trans-differentiation (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2016). Mutations in TFs and TF-binding sites underlie many human diseases. Their protein sequences, regulatory regions, and physiological roles are often deeply conserved among metazoans (Bejerano et al., 2004; Carroll, 2008), suggesting that global gene regulatory ‘‘networks’’ may be similarly conserved. And yet, there is high turnover in individual regulatory sequences (Weirauch and Hughes, 2010), and over longer timescales, TFs duplicate and diverge. The same TF can regulate different genes in different cell types (e.g., ESR1 in breast and endometrial cell lines [Gertz et al., 2012]), indicating that regulatory networks are dynamic even within the same organism. Determining how TFs are assembled in different ways to recognize binding sites and control transcription is daunting yet paramount to under-standing their physiological roles, decoding specific functional properties of genomes, and mapping how highly specific expression programs are orchestrated in complex organisms.

Forkhead transcription factor FoxO controls various cellular processes involved in cell cycle, cell death, metabolism and oxidative stress. Recent studies have also suggested FoxO is a key molecule for lifespan regulation of various organisms. Drosophila has a single FoxO gene (dFoxO), inactivation of which is dispensable for survival. However, dFoxO appears to regulate resistance to oxidative stress and aging in Drosophila. The activity of dFoxO is regulated by phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation, which may cause multiple bands of dFoxO in western blotting using this antibody. This antibody detects endogenous levels of total dFoxO protein.